Case Study: Ophthalmology

Elevated levels of VEGF and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 concentration in diabetic retinopathy patients (DR)


Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a severe side effect of diabetes characterized by destruction of the retina.

The following study was conducted to validate AYOXXA´s LUNARIS™ Human 6-Plex Ophthalmology Panel for detection of cytokines from vitreous humor of diabetic patients.

A successful analysis of cytokines from this challenging matrix would make a monitoring tool for patients affected by DR possible and also allow to evaluate treatment and disease progression.

Background: By destroying the largely unused, ischemic extramacular retina, Pan-Retinal Photocoagulation reduces the area of ischemic tissue (lack of blood flow), which in turn reduces total vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in the eye and thereby reducing the impetus for neovascularization.


DR is a very common cause of blindness.

The first stage, which is called non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), is characterized by macular edema (swollen retina) or by retinal ischemia.

In the second stage, abnormal new blood vessels (neovascularisation) form at the back of the eye as part of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR); these can burst and bleed (vitreous hemorrhage).

In collaboration with the Singapore Eye Research Institute (SERI), cytokine quantification from vitreous and aqueous humor was optimized with acceptance criteria of 70-130% accuracy and linearity of dilution

In a pilot study vitreous and aqueous humor samples were analyzed from a patient cohort.


Fig. 1 Intravitreal protein concentration in pg/mL of IL-6, IL-8, VEGF-A measured using the LUNARISHuman 6-Plex Ophthalmology Assay

Vitreous humor of 11 diabetic patients with retinopathy (DR), three patients without retinopathy (no DR) and five non-diabetic control patients were collected and analyzed using the LUNARIS™ Human 6-Plex Ophthalmology Assay (LHOP-10060). Intravitreal levels of IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF-A were significant higher in patients with DR when compared to patients with no DR or non-diabetic control patients. The unpaired t-test was used to compare the three different groups and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.


AYOXXA´s Ophthalmology Kits

Detect a selection of soluble cytokines, chemokines and angiogenesis biomarkers in minute amounts of vitreous, aqueous humor, retina homogenates, tears and plasma down to 3 µL volume



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